Giemsa-stained, peripheral blood smears of 67 dogs, showing clinical signs typical of babesiosis or reminiscent of concurrent babesiosis and ehrlichiosis, were examined for the presence of Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Since Cowdria ruminantium cross-reacts with Ehrlichia, the sera of these dogs were also subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test in which C. ruminantium was used as antigen. Fifty-five per cent of these dogs had mixed infections of B. canis and E. canis, as judged by blood smear examination and serology. The serum of 32 % of these dogs with mixed infections reacted positively in the IFA test. Six out of 9 dogs, the blood smears of which were negative for both B. canis and E. canis, were serologically positive for E. canis. Furthermore, sero-conversion from a negative in the initial serum sample to titres of up to 1:160 in a subsequent sample was recorded in 9 out of 13 dogs with suspected mixed infection on blood smear.
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