Cytotoxic and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities of Red Sea marine organisms

Show simple item record Ellithey, M.S. (Mona) Lall, Namrita Hussein, Ahmed A. Meyer, Debra 2014-08-22T12:59:37Z 2014-08-22T12:59:37Z 2014-02-25
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Cancer and HIV/AIDS are two of the greatest public health and humanitarian challenges facing the world today. Infection with HIV not only weakens the immune system leading to AIDS and increasing the risk of opportunistic infections, but also increases the risk of several types of cancer. The enormous biodiversity of marine habitats is mirrored by the molecular diversity of secondary metabolites found in marine animals, plants and microbes which is why this work was designed to assess the anti-HIV and cytotoxic activities of some marine organisms of the Red Sea. METHODS: The lipophilic fractions of methanolic extracts of thirteen marine organisms collected from the Red Sea (Egypt) were screened for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines; leukaemia (U937) and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) were used as normal non-malignant control cells. The extracts were also tested for their inhibitory activity against HIV-1 enzymes, reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR). RESULTS: Cytotoxicity results showed strong activity of the Cnidarian Litophyton arboreum against U-937 (IC50; 6.5 μg/ml ±2.3) with a selectivity index (SI) of 6.45, while the Cnidarian Sarcophyton trochliophorum showed strong activity against HeLa cells (IC50; 5.2 μg/ml ±1.2) with an SI of 2.09. Other species showed moderate to weak cytotoxicity against both cell lines. Two extracts showed potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease; these were the Cnidarian jelly fish Cassiopia andromeda (IC50; 0.84 μg/ml ±0.05) and the red algae Galaxura filamentosa (2.6 μg/ml ±1.29). It is interesting to note that the most active extracts against HIV-1 PR, C. andromeda and G. filamentosa showed no cytotoxicity in the three cell lines at the highest concentration tested (100 μg/ml). CONCLUSION: The strong cytotoxicity of the soft corals L. arboreum and S. trochliophorum as well as the anti-PR activity of the jelly fish C. andromeda and the red algae G. filamentosa suggests the medicinal potential of crude extracts of these marine organisms. en_US
dc.description.librarian am2014 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship The Medical Research Council, the Technology Innovation Agency and the University of Pretoria, South Africa. en_US
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.identifier.citation Ellithey, MS, Lall, N, Hussein, AA & Meyer, d 2014, 'Cytotoxic and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities of Red Sea marine organisms', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, art. 77, pp. 1-8. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1472-6882
dc.identifier.other 10.1186/1472-6882-14-77
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher BioMed Central en_US
dc.rights © 2014 Ellithey et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. en_US
dc.subject Red sea en_US
dc.subject Marine organisms en_US
dc.subject Cytotoxicity en_US
dc.subject HIV‐1 protease en_US
dc.subject HIV-1 reverse transcriptase en_US
dc.subject Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) en_US
dc.subject Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) en_US
dc.subject HIV/AIDS en_US
dc.title Cytotoxic and HIV-1 enzyme inhibitory activities of Red Sea marine organisms en_US
dc.type Article en_US

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