Culicoides (Avaritia) miombo sp. nov. is described and illustrated from both sexes collected in northern Malawi. Two references in the literature have previously referred to this new species as either C. brosseti Vattier & Adam or C. imicola Kieffer. A further 4 references are discussed that most likely deal with C. miombo sp. nov. and not C. brosseti. C. miombo sp. nov. is apparently widespread in subtropical and tropical Africa and is now recorded from Zimbabwe, Botswana, South Africa, Nigeria and the Ivory Coast. There are also probable records from Angola, Burkina Faso, Zambia and eastern Madagascar. On the African mainland, both north and south of the equator, the pattern of distribution of C. miombo sp. nov. correlates strongly with that of drier Guineo-Congolian rainforest, and Sudanian and Zambezian woodlands, the latter known as miombo in southern Africa. These phytochoria and associated biota are sensitive to frost and experience relatively high temperatures and rainfall-3 factors that appear to limit the distribution of C. miombo sp. nov. to north of the 20-22°C mean annual temperature isotherms in southern Africa. The new species is a member of the Imicola group which consists of 6 species confined to the Afrotropical (including Madagascar), Oriental and eastern Palaearctic regions. One species has in historic times spread to Australia. The worldwide distribution of each species is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the Imicola and Orientalis groups are separate lineages within the subgenus Avaritia. Culicoides miombo sp. nov. is compared with its closest African congeners C. imicola, C. pseudopallidipennis Clastrier and C. bolitinos Meiswinkel; 15 character states are used to separate C. miombo sp. nov. and C. imicola. The female antennal and palpal measurements of C. miombo sp. nov. are subjected to statistical analysis to highlight their taxonomic usefulness. The larval habitat of C. miombo sp. nov. is unknown.
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