The pattern of ovulation in mammals is generally considered to be either spontaneous or induced by coitus. The present study aimed to assess the pattern of ovulation in the southern African spiny mice (Acomys spinosissimus). Females were divided into three treatments differing in the degree of contact with a male. Control females had no contact with males, separated females had only chemical, auditory and visual contact with a male as the sexes were separated with wire mesh and paired females had full contact with a vasectomized male and copulations were possible. Each treatment consisted of seven females and the ovarian mass, the number of primary, secondary/tertiary and Graafian follicles as well as presence of corpora lutea were compared between the three treatments. Faecal progestagen metabolite (FPM) concentrations were analysed for every second day throughout the experiment and they were used to determine luteal phases and oestrous cycles. Corpora lutea were found in both the control and the paired treatment indicating that ovulation also occurred in the absence of coitus. There was also no effect of treatment on ovarian mass or follicle numbers. In contrast, only females in the separated and paired treatments exhibited luteal phases and oestrous cycles. Especially at the beginning of the experiment, FPM concentrations were higher in those two groups than the control. The results indicate that A. spinosissimus appears to ovulate spontaneously, although physical as well as olfactory male cues appear to be of great importance to enhance reproductive efforts of females.