This article explores China’s international role with reference to Africa in order to answer the question whether China can, in fact, be considered an emerging hegemon that is using, as Western states have done in the past, Africa in order to promote its own position. The concept hegemon/hegemony is discussed briefly in order to provide a framework for analysis. China’s relations with Africa are considered, focusing on economic, political and security issues (though the distinction between political and security issues is sometimes vague). These relations are then evaluated with reference to the nature and role of a hegemon. It is concluded that there is not sufficient evidence for perceiving China’s role in Africa as that of an emerging hegemon.