Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

Show simple item record Focke, Walter Wilhelm Badenhorst, Heinrich Mhike, Washington Kruger, Hermanus Joachim Lombaard, Dewan 2014-05-29T10:18:39Z 2014-05-29T10:18:39Z 2014-05
dc.description.abstract Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite’s were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event. en_US
dc.description.librarian hb2014 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship South African Research Chairs Initiative of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the National Research Foundation (NRF). en_US
dc.description.uri en_US
dc.identifier.citation Focke, WW, Badenhorst, H, Mhike, W, Kruger, HJ & Lombaard, D 2014, 'Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants', Thermochimica Acta, vol. 584, pp. 8-16. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0040-6031 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1872-762X (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.tca.2014.03.021
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.rights © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Thermochimica Acta. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Thermochimica Acta, vol. 584, pp. 8-16, 2014. doi : 10.1016/j.tca.2014.03.021. en_US
dc.subject Expandable graphite en_US
dc.subject Graphite oxide en_US
dc.subject Graphite intercalation compound en_US
dc.subject Exfoliation en_US
dc.subject Thermal analysis en_US
dc.title Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants en_US
dc.type Postprint Article en_US

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