The training and research challenges confronting the Department in the light of problems and tendencies encountered in the present agricultural developent situation are outlined. Evidene indicates that extension is the bottle-neck in agricultural development in South Africa. However, in spite of this, it is neglected when compared to research. The unmanageable number of clients per extension worker and diverse regulatory duties are some of the factors responsible for a passive information service benefiting only those farmers who have already realised their need for it. The end result is an ever increasing gap between the small percentage of progressive farmers and the majority of less progressive farmers, with correspondingly detrimental social and economic results. Apart from organizational adjustments, more purposeful co-ordination and involvement with co-operative and private advisory services, a more scientific approach should be adopted in order to meet future challenges. With this object in mind, an organizational model and a "two-front" strategy is proposed and the training and research challenges are outlined.