Lignocelluloses are the building blocks of all plants and are ubiquitous to most regions of our planet. Their chemical properties make it a substrate of enormous biotechnological value. The basic chemistry of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin has a profound effect on lignocellulose tertiary architecture. These intricate associations constitute physical and chemical barriers to lignocellulose utilization and biodegradation in natural and man-made environments. Overcoming these barriers is the key to unlocking the commercial potential of lignocellulose. Understanding lignocellulose degradation under natural conditions forms the basis of any lignocellulose-based application. A variety of microorganisms and mechanisms are involved in the complete biodegradation of lignocellulose in natural environments ranging from soil and rumen ecosystems to the termite hindgut. The primary objective of lignocellulose pretreatment by the various industries is to access the potential of the cellulose and hemicellulose encrusted by lignin within the lignocellulose matrix. Current working technologies based on the principles of solid-state fermentation (SSF) are briefly reviewed. The use of unsterile lignocellulosics for bioremediation purposes holds promise for cost-effective environmental clean-up endeavors. Novel lignocellulose-based applications have found functionality in textile, biological control, and medical research fields and might be exploited there in the near future. Ultimately, lignocellulose will probably accompany man to his voyages into space for interest in this field is intensifying. Therefore, proper management of lignocellulose biodegradation and utilization can serve to improve the quality of the environment, further man’s understanding of the universe, and ultimately change local economies and communities.