The disease in cattle, called nagana in Zulu land, was linked with trypanosomal parasitaemia and tsetse
flies. Nagana occurs in livestock throughout the tsetse belts of Africa. Wild animals are tolerant of trypanosomal
Nagana affects individual animals, herds and socio-economic development. In susceptible animals
nagana may be acute, but chronic infections are more common. The host-parasite interaction produces
extensive pathology and severe anaemia. Clinically affected animals lose condition and become weak
and unproductive. Nagana is often fatal and, at herd level, its impact is wide ranging. All aspects of
production are depressed: fertility is impaired; milk yields, growth and work output are reduced; and
the mortality rate may reduce herd size.
Africa has to feed its rapidly growing human population, and animal products are a vital dietary component.
However, in most tsetse areas, there is not enough meat and milk. Furthermore, animal draft
power is often not available, which limits cultivation and local transport. These factors lower household
incomes and retard socio-economic development.
Sustainable rural development requires that nagana be controlled. This in turn needs considerable
resources, whichever control strategy is adopted.
The articles have been scanned in colour with a HP Scanjet 5590; 600dpi.
Adobe Acrobat XI Pro was used to OCR the text and also for the merging and conversion to the final presentation PDF-format.