Infection of wild animals by bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is raising concern worldwide. This article
reviews the current epidemiological situation, risk of emergence and control options at the
wildlife-livestock-human interface in sub-Saharan Africa. In livestock, bTB has been confirmed
in the majority of countries from all parts of the continent. Wildlife infection is confirmed in 7
countries from southern and eastern Africa, apparently spreading in the southern Africa region.
Mycobacterium bovis has been isolated from 14 wild mammal species, although only 4 are
suspected to play a role as maintenance host. Zoonotic risks are a concern, but no direct spill-over
from wildlife to human has been documented, and no case of bTB spill-back from wildlife to
livestock has been confirmed. Herein we assess the main risk factors of bTB spill-over at the
wildlife-livestock-human interface and suggest several research themes which could improve the
control of the disease in the African context.