Higher education in post-independence Kenya from 1963 to 2009 has been characterized by rapid expansion - both in terms of student enrolment and in a sharp increase in the number of both private and public universities. While national and institutional mechanisms, such as the establishment of a revolving fund, the Higher Education Loans Board and the introduction of the Privately Sponsored Students Programme, have been initiated to address the sharp demand for higher education against a backdrop of diminishing financial support, violent student unrest - which seriously undermined these efforts - has persisted. A sustained period of student unrest has characterized Kenya‟s higher education. This has manifested itself in the form of violent protests, riots, boycotts and strikes. Statistics indicate that the intensity/frequency and violence of the strikes has steadily increased over the years. For example, between 1969 and 2000 sixty-nine cases of student strikes were recorded at all the public universities. Of these cases, twenty-two (31.88%) occurred within a time span of 20 years (1969-1989) while forty-seven cases (68.12%) occurred in a short period of just one decade (1990-2000).At Moi University twenty-four cases of strikes, which affected its colleges and campuses, were recorded between 1985 and 2009. In terms of radical policy adaptation at both national and institutional levels, one would expect a downward trend in unrest. Instead, however, the frequency and intensity of violence associated with strikes has increased at an alarming rate with several deaths being reported.
As such, this study has investigated the factors that have contributed to, and informed, a sustained period of student unrest with a specific focus on Moi University in order to identify policy lessons. Global, national and institutional aspects were examined. A case study strategy was applied - with Moi University as its focus. Data was collected through an in-depth review of the relevant literature, document analysis and interviews. Past and present senior management staff members at Moi University, including Deans of Faculties, Deans of Students, Heads of Departments, and Heads of Sections as well as former student leaders were interviewed. The study concludes in its findings that the university is operating within a highly dynamic and unstable social-political environment, leading to the emergence of inadequate policy adaptations. The resultant shortcomings in the operations of the university attract the wrath of an informed student population in the form of unrest. The students action is not however simply reactionary, as they too, as change agents have their own agenda that evolves over time as they seize opportunities created by the policy shortcomings to pursue it. The study summarized the salient factors responsible for the violent unrest in five broad thematic areas. These include: (i) Unrest associated with flawed international and national policies and social pressure; (ii) Unrest associated with critical national issues and identification with progressive change agents; (iii) Unrest associated with student politics;(iv) Unrest associated with social identity and threats of their welfare from organized groups; and (v) Unrest associated with the prevalence of institutional catalyzing factors. A typical strike develops through four main phases: (i) The development/ brewing phase; (ii) The heightened tension phase; (iii) The full blown strike phase; and (iv) The dissipation/uneasy calm phase. Organizational disequilibrium describes the general state of instability characterizing the university, while organizational paranoia is associated with instances of devastating strikes during a heightened tension phase. A strike matrix of Spontaneous vs Orchestrated and Flash vs Protracted typify the strikes. Unrest has led to the disruption of academic programmes; the destruction of property and deaths; a loss of critical study time; and damage to students‟ careers caused by suspensions and expulsions. The need for a well-considered policy that involves exhaustive consultation with all the stake-holders emerges as critical for the future stability of universities.
This pilot study investigates the impact of a tutorial model on the performance of
distance education students enrolled for an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE)
programme. The aim of the support system is to enhance ...
Van Rooyen, Marietjie(South African Academy of Family Practice/Primary Care, 2012-11)
SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Pretoria are required to work with a primary
healthcare practitioner for two weeks. After the preceptorship, reflective photo-story reports on the ...
Van Schoor, Albert-Neels; Meiring, J.H.; Louw, F.S.(2008-09-29)
Considering the growing tendency and in often demand of making all Study guides and material electronically available to students, the question arises whether hard copies of the Study component of Study guides should be ...