The concept of ‘monotheism’ has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship.
This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second
Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the
only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to
goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess,
whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the
personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the ‘dark sides’ of the gods were materialised
in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The
question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil,
whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it
difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from
polytheism to monotheism.