Reactivity between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte based on industrial and laboratory data

Show simple item record Chauke, Levy Garbers-Craig, Andrie Mariana 2013-10-15T13:57:13Z 2013-10-15T13:57:13Z 2013-07
dc.description.abstract Interaction between electrolyte and carbon cathodes during the electrolytic production of aluminium decreases cell life. This paper describes the interaction between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte, based on industrial and laboratory data. It also reports on the degree of expansion of semi-graphitic and graphitised materials when exposed to a sodium rich environment. Phase relations in the slow cooled bath electrolyte, spent industrial cathodes and laboratory scale cathode samples were similar: all contained Na3AlF6, NaF, CaF2 and NaAl11O17. Al4C3, AlN and NaCN were only detected in the spent industrial cathodes. The inability to locate Al4C3 in the laboratory scale samples could be due to very low concentrations of Al4C3 which could not be detected by XRD, or to the limited direct contact between the produced aluminium and carbon material. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that sodium intercalation into graphite did not take place. Wear of the examined carbon cathodes proceeded due to penetration of electrolyte and sodium into the cathode, followed by reactions with carbon and N2 whereby AlN and NaCN formed. Once electrolysis started the carbon cathodes expanded rapidly, but slowed down after approximately an hour. Sodium expansion decreased with degree of graphitisation of the carbon cathode material. en
dc.description.librarian hb2013 en
dc.description.librarian ai2014
dc.description.sponsorship The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and the Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme (THRIP) and the NRF. en
dc.description.uri en
dc.identifier.citation Chauke, L & Garbers-Craig, AM 2013, 'Reactivity between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte based on industrial and laboratory data', Carbon, vol. 58, pp. 40-45. en
dc.identifier.issn 0008-6223 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1873-3891 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.carbon.2013.02.023
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Elsevier en
dc.rights © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Carbon.Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Carbon, vol. 58, pp. 40-45, 2013, doi : 10.1016/j.carbon.2013.02.023 en
dc.subject Carbon cathode materials en
dc.subject.lcsh Cathodes en
dc.subject.lcsh Electrolytes en
dc.subject.lcsh Electrolysis en
dc.subject.lcsh Sodium en
dc.subject.lcsh Graphitization en
dc.subject.lcsh Carbon en
dc.subject.lcsh Aluminum -- Electrometallurgy en
dc.title Reactivity between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte based on industrial and laboratory data en
dc.type Postprint Article en

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