Conserving large carnivores : dollars and fence

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dc.contributor.author Packer, C.
dc.contributor.author Loveridge, A.
dc.contributor.author Canney, S.
dc.contributor.author Caro, T.
dc.contributor.author Garnett, S.T.
dc.contributor.author Pfeifer, Marion
dc.contributor.author Zander, K.K.
dc.contributor.author Swanson, A.
dc.contributor.author MacNulty, D.
dc.contributor.author Balme, Guy Andrew
dc.contributor.author Bauer, H.
dc.contributor.author Begg, C.M.
dc.contributor.author Begg, K.S.
dc.contributor.author Bhalla, S.
dc.contributor.author Bissett, C.
dc.contributor.author Bodasing, T.
dc.contributor.author Brink, H.
dc.contributor.author Burger, A.
dc.contributor.author Burton, A.C.
dc.contributor.author Clegg, B.
dc.contributor.author Dell, S.
dc.contributor.author Delsink, Audrey K.
dc.contributor.author Dickerson, T.
dc.contributor.author Dloniak, S.M.
dc.contributor.author Druce, D.
dc.contributor.author Frank, L.
dc.contributor.author Funston, Paul J.
dc.contributor.author Gichohi, N.
dc.contributor.author Groom, R.J. (Rosemary)
dc.contributor.author Hanekom, C.
dc.contributor.author Heath, B.
dc.contributor.author Hunter, Luke T.B.
dc.contributor.author De Iongh, Hans H.
dc.contributor.author Joubert, C.J.
dc.contributor.author Kasiki, S.M.
dc.contributor.author Kissui, B.
dc.contributor.author Knocker, W.
dc.contributor.author Leathem, B.
dc.contributor.author Lindsey, Peter Andrew
dc.contributor.author MacLennan, S.D.
dc.contributor.author McNutt, J.W.
dc.contributor.author Miller, Susan M.
dc.contributor.author Naylor, S.
dc.contributor.author Nel, P.
dc.contributor.author Ngweno, C.
dc.contributor.author Nicholls, K.
dc.contributor.author Ogutu, Joseph O.
dc.contributor.author Okot-Omoya, E.
dc.contributor.author Patterson, B.D.
dc.contributor.author Plumptre, A.
dc.contributor.author Salerno, J.
dc.contributor.author Skinner, K.
dc.contributor.author Slotow, Robert
dc.contributor.author Sogbohossou, E.A.
dc.contributor.author Stratford, K.J.
dc.contributor.author Winterbach, Christiaan W.
dc.contributor.author Winterbach, Hanlie Evelyn Kathleen
dc.contributor.author Polasky, S.
dc.date.accessioned 2013-09-12T12:12:57Z
dc.date.available 2014-03-31T00:20:05Z
dc.date.issued 2013-05
dc.description.abstract Conservationists often advocate for landscape approaches to wildlife management while others argue for physical separation between protected species and human communities, but direct empirical comparisons of these alternatives are scarce. We relate African lion population densities and population trends to contrasting management practices across 42 sites in 11 countries. Lion populations in fenced reserves are significantly closer to their estimated carrying capacities than unfenced populations. Whereas fenced reserves can maintain lions at 80% of their potential densities on annual management budgets of $500 km−2, unfenced populations require budgets in excess of $2000 km−2 to attain half their potential densities. Lions in fenced reserves are primarily limited by density dependence, but lions in unfenced reserves are highly sensitive to human population densities in surrounding communities, and unfenced populations are frequently subjected to density-independent factors. Nearly half the unfenced lion populations may decline to near extinction over the next 20–40 years. en_US
dc.description.librarian hb2013 en_US
dc.description.sponsorship Research funded by Adrian Gardiner/Mantis Collection (AL), African Wildlife Foundation (SB,LF), Wendy Arnold (LF), Arthur Blank Family Foundation (LF), Australian Research Council - DP0987528 (KZ), Australian Research Council – LP0990395 (SG), Banovich Wildscapes Foundation (LF), Bateleurs (RS), Boesak Kruger Fund (LF,AL), Born Free (SB,SC), Michael Calvin (LF), Charles Darwin University (STG,KKZ), Cheryl Grunbock & Martin King Foundation (LF), Chicago Board of Trade for Endangered Species (RG), Columbus Zoo (SB,TC,RG,LF), Conservation Force (LF,PF), Dallas Ecological Foundation (LF), Dallas Safari Club (LF), Darwin Initiative for Biodiversity (AL), Paul Davies (SMD), Denver Zoo (LF), Directors of Ongava Game Reserve (KJS), Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund (CMB,KSB,CP,RS), Dominion Oil (EOO, AP), Earthwatch Institute #5123 (SMK,BP), Fairplay Foundation (CMB,KSB), Fauna & Flora International (CMB,KSB), Flora Family Foundation (LF), Frankenberg Foundation (AL), Stephen Gold (LF), Green Trust WWF-SA (RS), GTZ/Pendjari Project (EAS), Hluhluwe Tourism Assoc. (RS), Houston Zoo (CMB,KSB,JWMcN), Idea Wild (HBr), Kenya Wildlife Service (SK), Lakeside Foundation (SMD), Lee & Juliet Folger Foundation (JWMcN), Lillian Jean Kaplan Foundation (AL), Lion Ore (KN), Bruce Ludwig (LF), Malilangwe Trust (BC), Mara Conservancy (BH), MGM Grand Hotel (CP,RS), Mohamed Bin Zayed Species Fund (HHdeI), N. & R. Myhrvold (JWMcN), National Geographic Big Cat Initiative (HHdeI,JWMcN), National Geographic Society (SB,HBr,TC,LF,RG,CP), National Research Foundation (RS), Netherlands Committee for IUCN (HHdeI), Netherlands Support Program for the Garoua Wildlife School (HBa), NSF (LF,JS), NSF DEB-0 613 730(DMacN), NSF DEB-1 020 479(CP), Okavango Wildlife Society (KN), Ol Pejeta Ranch Ltd. (NG,CN), Panthera (GB,CMB,KSB,HBr,LF, LH,BK, PL,AL,CP,EOO,AP,EAS), Panthera Kaplan Awards Program (ACB,LF), PG Allen Family Foundation (JWMcN), Philadelphia Zoological Society (LF,KN,KS), Porini Camp Amboseli (LF), Potrero Nuevo Fund (LF), Predator Conservation Trust (CMB,KSB), Rann Safaris (CW,HW), Rufford Foundation (CMB,KSB,LF,KN), Rufford-Maurice-Laing Foundation (AL), Kathy Ruttenberg (AP), Safari South (C&HW), San Francisco Zoo (LF), SCI Foundation (LF), Seaworld/Busch Gardens Conservation Foundation (SB,LF), Technology and Human Resources for Industry Programme, SA (RS), Thandiza Foundation and the Rotterdam Zoo (KN), Tshwane University of Technology – Faculty Research Committee (PF), Tshwane University of Technology – Postgraduate Scholarship Programme (SMM), Tusk Trust (JWMcN), University of KwaZulu-Natal (RS), US Forest Service (AP), US National Cancer Institute (LF), Van Tienhoven Foundation (HBa), Jonathan Vannini (LF), Vectronic Aerospace (LF), West Midlands Safari Park (KS), Debby Wettlaufer (LF), Wild about Cats (RS), Wild Entrust International (JWMcN), Wildlife Conservation Network (CMB,KSB,LF), Wildlife Conservation Society (CMB,KSB,LF,BK,EOO,AP), Wildlife Conservation Trust KZN (RS), Wildlife Direct (LF), Wildlife Division of the Forestry Commission of Ghana (ACB), Woodland Park Zoo (JWMcN) and World Wide Fund for Nature (HHdeI). en_US
dc.description.uri http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1461-0248 en_US
dc.identifier.citation Packer, C ... et al 2013, 'Conserving large carnivores : dollars and fence', Ecology Letters, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 635-641. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 1461-023X (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1461-0248 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1111/ele.12091
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/31710
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Wiley-Blackwell en_US
dc.rights © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.The definite version is available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1461-0248 en_US
dc.subject Carnivores en_US
dc.subject Carrying capacity en_US
dc.subject Density dependence en_US
dc.subject Exponential growth en_US
dc.subject Landscape conservation en_US
dc.subject Spatial separation en_US
dc.title Conserving large carnivores : dollars and fence en_US
dc.type Postprint Article en_US


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