In the present study the bones of the skull, excluding the hyoid apparatus, are described. All the bones
are aerated by sinuses. In the occipital bone the squamous part is aerated from the sinus of the parietal
bone, the lateral part is aerated from the tympanic bulla and the basal part from the sinus of the
basisphenoid bone. Condylar foramens and hypoglossal canals are absent. A small interparietal bone
is present at birth. At an early age it fuses with the surrounding cranial bones. The squamous part of
the temporal bone lies sagittally in young animals, but moves progressively to a transverse plane as
the animals age. A foramen lacerum is represented by jugular and oval foramens and the carotid canal.
The body of the basisphenoid bone is excavated by the massive maxillary tuberosity. The latter
extends to the oval foramen and contains the developing molar teeth. The ethmoturbinate, nasal and
lacrimal bones are exceptionally small. In old bulls the palatine processes of the incisive bones and
their sinuses are gradually displaced by the palatine processes of the maxillae.
The incisive part of the mandible does not carry any teeth and both lateral and medial mental foramina are present.
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