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dc.contributor.advisor | Van Heerden, Hendrik J. | en |

dc.contributor.postgraduate | Kuisis, S.M. (Suzan Mary) | |

dc.date.accessioned | 2013-09-07T14:52:34Z | |

dc.date.available | 2004-10-29 | en |

dc.date.available | 2013-09-07T14:52:34Z | |

dc.date.created | 2003-05-08 | en |

dc.date.issued | 2005-10-29 | en |

dc.date.submitted | 2004-10-29 | en |

dc.description | Dissertation (MA (Human Movement Science))--University of Pretoria, 2005. | en |

dc.description.abstract | The 20 Metre Multistage Shuttle Run Test (20 MST) was modified for application to ice-sports, more specifically for ice-hockey and figure-skating. Seventy two participants in ice-sports served as the total subject group. Subjects included in the study were National and Provincial standard male ice-hockey subjects (n=67) and female figure skaters (n=5) participating in the Gauteng area of South Africa (altitude of 1497 metres above sea level and barometric pressure of 655 mmHg). The mean age for the total group was 17.44±1.33 years. The research methodology entailed a repeated measures design to determine: a) velocity of motion on-ice vs. over-ground; b) energy expenditure on-ice vs. over-ground; and c) mechanical efficiency on-ice vs. over-ground. The mean velocity of motion measured over three distances (0 to 20, 0 to 30 and 0 to 40 m) indicated a significantly (p≤0.05) faster velocity on-ice (5.99±0.72 m/s) versus over-ground (5.75±0.63 m/s). The corresponding mean time-lapsed on-ice/over-ground ratio was 0.97±0.11. Differences in mean energy expenditure whilst performing the original 20 MST over-ground as opposed to on-ice were measured at low (at 4 minutes of exercise and 10 km/h), intermediate (after 8 minutes of exercise and 12 km/h), and high intensity (after 12 min of exercise and 14 km/h). The mean of the three indicated a significantly (p≤0.05) higher energy expenditure over-ground (14.04±4.86 kcal/min) as apposed to on-ice (10.51±2.95 kcal/min). The mean energy expenditure ratio for the three different intensities on-ice vs. over-ground was 0.74±0.21. Similarly, the mechanical efficiency index over-ground (4.92±0.59) was found to be significantly (p≤0.001) poorer than on-ice (6.83±1.49). The mean mechanical efficiency ratio over-ground/over-ice was 0.74±0.13. Subsequently, based on the above results, the 20 MST was modified by: a) adapting (increasing) the velocity of motion required for each level of the test (distance of 20 m per shuttle); and b) establishing the reliability and validity of the modified 20 MST for use on-ice. The adapted 20 Metre Multistage Shuttle Skating Test (the modified (skating) 20 MST) started at a velocity of 2.8 m/s (10.1 km/h) and permitted 7.1 seconds to complete each shuttle for the first level of the test, which then decreased progressively at each level. This was based on an over-all variable-derived on-ice to over ground ratio of 0.84. Test-retest, on-ice reliability measures (n=15) for predicted VO2max (49.5±8.37 vs. 49.29±7.95 ml/kg/min) showed a highly significant (p£0.001) consistency (r=0.87). Similarly test-retest concurrent validity measures (n=10) for predicted VO2max over-ground with the original 20 MST (48.09±6.25 ml/kg/min) as designed by Léger and Lambert (1982) versus on-ice values with the adapted on-ice 20 MST (49.98±7.23 ml/kg/min), showed a very significant (p£0.01) correlation of 0.73 between the two tests. In conclusion the original 20 MST, as designed by Léger and Lambert (1982) for over-ground, proved inappropriate for use on-ice. Modification of the starting velocity as well as a progressive increase in velocity for all subsequent stages renders the modified 20 MST for ice-sports a reliable and valid test for cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), with surface-specific utility. The 20 Metre Multistage Shuttle Run Test (20 MST) was modified for application to ice-sports, more specifically for ice-hockey and figure-skating. Seventy two participants in ice-sports served as the total subject group. Subjects included in the study were National and Provincial standard male ice-hockey subjects (n=67) and female figure skaters (n=5) participating in the Gauteng area of South Africa (altitude of 1497 metres above sea level and barometric pressure of 655 mmHg). The mean age for the total group was 17.44±1.33 years. The research methodology entailed a repeated measures design to determine: a) velocity of motion on-ice vs. over-ground; b) energy expenditure on-ice vs. over-ground; and c) mechanical efficiency on-ice vs. over-ground. The mean velocity of motion measured over three distances (0 to 20, 0 to 30 and 0 to 40 m) indicated a significantly (p≤0.05) faster velocity on-ice (5.99±0.72 m/s) versus over-ground (5.75±0.63 m/s). The corresponding mean time-lapsed on-ice/over-ground ratio was 0.97±0.11. Differences in mean energy expenditure whilst performing the original 20 MST over-ground as opposed to on-ice were measured at low (at 4 minutes of exercise and 10 km/h), intermediate (after 8 minutes of exercise and 12 km/h), and high intensity (after 12 min of exercise and 14 km/h). The mean of the three indicated a significantly (p≤0.05) higher energy expenditure over-ground (14.04±4.86 kcal/min) as apposed to on-ice (10.51±2.95 kcal/min). The mean energy expenditure ratio for the three different intensities on-ice vs. over-ground was 0.74±0.21. Similarly, the mechanical efficiency index over-ground (4.92±0.59) was found to be significantly (p≤0.001) poorer than on-ice (6.83±1.49). The mean mechanical efficiency ratio over-ground/over-ice was 0.74±0.13. Subsequently, based on the above results, the 20 MST was modified by: a) adapting (increasing) the velocity of motion required for each level of the test (distance of 20 m per shuttle); and b) establishing the reliability and validity of the modified 20 MST for use on-ice. The adapted 20 Metre Multistage Shuttle Skating Test (the modified (skating) 20 MST) started at a velocity of 2.8 m/s (10.1 km/h) and permitted 7.1 seconds to complete each shuttle for the first level of the test, which then decreased progressively at each level. This was based on an over-all variable-derived on-ice to over ground ratio of 0.84. Test-retest, on-ice reliability measures (n=15) for predicted VO2max (49.5±8.37 vs. 49.29±7.95 ml/kg/min) showed a highly significant (p£0.001) consistency (r=0.87). Similarly test-retest concurrent validity measures (n=10) for predicted VO2max over-ground with the original 20 MST (48.09±6.25 ml/kg/min) as designed by Léger and Lambert (1982) versus on-ice values with the adapted on-ice 20 MST (49.98±7.23 ml/kg/min), showed a very significant (p£0.01) correlation of 0.73 between the two tests. In conclusion the original 20 MST, as designed by Léger and Lambert (1982) for over-ground, proved inappropriate for use on-ice. Modification of the starting velocity as well as a progressive increase in velocity for all subsequent stages renders the modified 20 MST for ice-sports a reliable and valid test for cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), with surface-specific utility. | en |

dc.description.availability | unrestricted | en |

dc.description.department | Biokinetics, Sport and Leisure Sciences | en |

dc.identifier.citation | Kuisis, S 2003, Modification of the 20 Metre Shuttle Run Test (20 MST) for ice-sports, MA dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, viewed yymmdd < http://hdl.handle.net/2263/29104 > | en |

dc.identifier.upetdurl | http://upetd.up.ac.za/thesis/available/etd-10292004-141657/ | en |

dc.identifier.uri | http://hdl.handle.net/2263/29104 | |

dc.language.iso | en | |

dc.publisher | University of Pretoria | en_ZA |

dc.rights | © 2003, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria. | en |

dc.subject | 20 metre multistage shuttle-skating test [m | en |

dc.subject | Surface-specific utility | en |

dc.subject | Cardiorespiratory fitness (vo2max) | en |

dc.subject | Mechanical efficiency | en |

dc.subject | 20 metre multistage shuttle run test (20 mst) | en |

dc.subject | Velocity of motion | en |

dc.subject | Energy expenditure | en |

dc.subject | Ice-sports | en |

dc.subject | UCTD | en_US |

dc.title | Modification of the 20 Metre Shuttle Run Test (20 MST) for ice-sports | en |

dc.type | Dissertation | en |