This study is centered on childhood music education in Nigeria. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study. A total of 313 subjects were used. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire on the childhood music education in Nigeria. Statistically weighted mean was used to answer the research questions and t - test was employed in testing the null hypotheses. At the end of the analysis, the following findings were made: <ul> <li>At least, 13 learning materials including both African and western musical instruments are available for teaching music in Nigerian primary schools. Up to 10 learning strategies were identified by the music teachers and music educators to be among the ones that could be utilized to ensure fruitful and effective acquisition of musical knowledge by the pupils in Nigeria.</li> <li>The perception of music educators and music teachers on the methodology that can best be utilized to ensure fruitful and effective acquisition of musical knowledge by the pupils at primary school level of education in Nigeria do not differ significantly.</li> <li>There is no significant difference between the music teachers and music educators’ perception on the adequacy of delivery of the music staff and learning situations in Nigerian primary schools.</li> </ul> Based on these findings a number of recommendations for improvement of the music education in Nigerian primary schools have been made. In addition to the sample teaching and learning programme, the original contribution of this study is explored in chapter six. This chapter offers lesson plans designed for grade II music teachers in primary schools in Nigeria. This programme was conducted and performed in one of the primary schools in the study area and ended with twelve contacts with pupils. (a digital video disk is attached to the thesis).