Chronic posterior compartment syndrome (CPCS) of the leg is a pathological condition which is often encountered by participants in exercise related activities such as running. To date no successful conservative treatment approach existed for the condition. The mainstay of the management of the condition at present is the surgical release of the involved fascia that surrounds the compartment. The main aim of the research project was thus to develop a successful conservative treatment approach for the symptoms of CPCS. It was identified that the current theoretical base did not incorporate the continuous and relatively inelastic nature of the fascia which plays an important role in the condition. Based on an extended literature review, muscles which are linked to the posterior compartment via the myofascial tissue were identified. Tightness in these clinically significant muscles is able to induce stresses in the myofascial chain which could ultimately influence stresses in the posterior compartment of the leg. The release of tightness in these muscles external to the posterior compartment through soft tissue mobilization techniques provides an effective conservative treatment approach for the symptoms of CPCS. A revised model for the pathogenesis of CPCS was developed which formed the basis for treatment interventions. The revised theoretical model for the pathogenesis of CPCS was validated based on a mixed-methodological approach which included a series of exploratory as well as explanatory case studies. This qualitative approach was supplemented by quantitative experiments in which the causal relationships of the condition on certain biomechanical aspects were explored. The treatment interventions had a hundred percent success rate and the results of the experimental research conducted also supports the new theoretical model for the pathogenesis of CPCS.