Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) play a crucial role in creating access to information sources through the library networks. When academic libraries integrate ICTs in their services they play an important role in teaching and learning. It is for such reasons that KENET sought to establish an ICT infrastructure to network Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Kenya, and to facilitate the use of Internet Technology in teaching, learning, research and sharing of information resources at an affordable cost. The University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB) and Kenyatta University (KU) libraries in Kenya are both members of the Kenya Education Network (KENET). This study investigates the main features of ICT use by a public and a private university library in Kenya in support of formal and informal teaching and learning. The study includes three target groups, namely: third year undergraduate students, library committee members, and library managers. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires, interviews, and site visits. The four main issues considered were: ICT infrastructure, access and use of ICTs, ICT usage patterns, and students learning outcomes. The study concludes that: <ul><li>There is inadequate ICT infrastructure, specifically library networks and computers, at Kenyatta University.</li> <li>Access to and use of ICTs is affected by the lack of access skills, and there is a need for training in this area.</li> <li>ICT usage differs, with Kenyatta University students lagging behind UEAB students. </li> <li>Student learning outcomes are diverse; UEAB students benefited from the use of library e-resources to meet their formal and informal learning needs, and Kenyatta University students did not benefit at all.</li></ul> The study also concludes that the implementation of ICTs in Kenyan HEI libraries, through the provision of adequate infrastructure and funding, the development of ICT policies, and the development of Information Literacy (IL) programmes for students, will ensure that ICTs play an important role in academic support for formal and non-formal teaching and learning. A model for the implementation of an IL programme is proposed as a means to advance the process.