Studies concluded that more that 10% of all energy consumed in the world is expended by building air-conditioning systems. Energy efficiency in building and HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air-conditioning) design is therefore exceptionally important. A cost¬-effective way to improve the energy efficiency of a HV AC system, without compromising indoor comfort, is by implementing better control. System energy cost savings of up to 50% can be realised by optimising the system operating control strategies with direct payback periods of less than a year. However, when changing the operating strategy of a system it is often difficult to predict the resulting changes in system energy consumption and indoor comfort. To achieve these predictions, a dynamic simulation tool, which can efficiently and accurately simulate the building with the HV AC and control system in an integrated fashion, is required. Extensions to the integrated tool QUICKcontrol is therefore proposed to suite the needs of the energy service contractor. QUICKcontrol still has many shortcomings in the availability of component models for certain equipment commonly used in building systems today. New dynamic component models were therefore derived in this study. The accuracy and applicability of integrated building and natural ventilation modelling is illustrated in animal housing facilities. The predicted results obtained during this study were satisfactory to use these models with confidence in this type of building applications. The applicability of building, HV AC system and control simulations was illustrated in conference facilities. The results obtained show the value of integrated building and system simulation in the evaluation of energy cost saving inventions in commercial buildings. The mining and industrial sectors in South Africa consume about 40% of ESKOM's total electrical energy production. Mines alone use nearly 20% of the electricity provided by ESKOM. Ventilation and cooling (VC) systems are responsible for approximately 25% or R750 million of this energy. It will therefore be beneficial if the mines can be more energy clever in order to reduce their VC operating costs. The use of an extended integrated building and system simulation tool was therefore realised to investigate the potential for energy cost savings in mine VC applications. To extend QUICKcontrol for the simulation of other large thermal systems found in mining and industrial applications, new component models and simulations procedures were developed. Two case studies were performed with the extended tool to illustrate its applicability in thermal systems other than building systems. The potential for Demand Side Management (DSM) on a surface cooling plant and an underground clear water-pumping system was investigated. Satisfactory results were obtained during the two investigations to utilise this extended tool with confidence in practice. With more extensions to the tool it should be possible to investigate the potential for energy cost saving on any other thermal industrial applications.
Thesis (PhD (Mechanical Engineering))--University of Pretoria, 2007.