This dissertation both proposes and records the ongoing implementation of a ‘Landsafe’ integrated conservation and development model for the customary commons of Zambia. In Volume I, a geographical historical perspective of the country is presented which concentrates on wildlife conservation and rural people. The changes wrought successively on indigenous peoples by invading native Africans of the Bantu linguistic group, then in turn on them by Europeans in the form of Charter Companies and later by Imperial Protectorate rule, and finally, by self-rule, is explored. The country’s evolution from Western colonialism and embedded liberalism, to exploitative neoliberalism and the concurrent emergence of the traditional patrimonial system - one modernised by its meeting with European captalism, is the backdrop and basis for the construction of Landsafe and its current implementation in two chiefdoms. Volume II presents the Landsafe ICDP model. This is based on the formation of chiefdom statutory trusts, with trustees elected by villagers of the customary commons; and the signing of co-management agreements with government departments in respect of wildlife, Game Management Areas, and protected forest land, forests, fisheries and water. The local District Councils would be signatory to such agreements, and the chiefs and their headmen would vest selected customary land in these trusts. These vested lands are then protected, allowing for controlled exploitation by investors - such that they do not impinge unnecessarily on traditional rights or on the re-establishment of traditional guardians of nature. Land may not, under any circumstances, be alienated from customary control. A log frame programme analysis procedure is adopted and a suggested formalisation methodology and procedures for implementing Landsafe included. Finally, the socio-ecology of the first project area in the Luangwa Valley is detailed, followed by a description of the implementation of the Landsafe programme; including a critical analysis comparing Landsafe theory to practice.