Fatty acid intercalated layered double hydroxides were used as additives for Jojoba oil and polymer matrices. The first phase of the study was to intercalate carboxylic acids (C14 to C22). These were successfully intercalated into layered double hydroxides (LDHs), with the formula [Mg0.7Al0.3 (OH) 2](CO3)0. 15•0.5H2O. The one-pot synthesis consistently yielded a bilayer intercalated product for the range of acids employed. The intercalated anions had an orientation tilt angle of 55–63°, depending on the length of the fatty acid chain. However, there is an indication that the anion exchange process employed in this study is accompanied by probable dissolution and recrystallisation of the LDH. This is supported by the different growth habits and sizes of platelets observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, the organo-LDH platelets were found to have varying MII/MIII compositions, ranging from 1.65 to 6, indicating that the one-pot synthesis yields an array of mixed metal hydroxides. Polymer composites, containing 5% and 10 wt.% of stearate intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDH-stearate) and neat layered double hydroxides (LDH-CO3), were prepared via melt-compounding to explore the use of LDHs as an additive. The stearate modified starting material was bilayer-intercalated clay. During melt compounding, excess stearates were released and the clay reverted to a monolayer-intercalated form. Comprehensive characterisation and study of the fatty acid-intercalated LDH showed that these organoclay hybrids exhibit thermotropic behaviour. This behaviour ultimately leads to the exudation of excess fatty acid. The exuded stearates were found to have lubricating and plasticising effects on the poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) matrices. Strong hydrogen bond interactions between the chains of poly(ethyleneco- vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) and the clay platelet surfaces overwhelmed the lubrication effect and caused an increase in the melt viscosity of this matrix. The notched Charpy impact strength of this composite was almost double that of the neat polymer. It appears that this can be attributed to the ability of the highly dispersed and randomly oriented nanosized clay platelets to promote extensive internal microcavitation during impact loading. The creation of a large internal surface area provided the requisite energy dissipation mechanism. The study also considered fatty acid-intercalated LDH as an argillaceous mineral for potential use as a rheological additive in Jojoba oil. A minimum of 20 wt.% LDH in Jojoba oil formulation was found to be stable, i.e. it did not form separate layers on standing. The viscosity of the neat Jojoba oil demonstrated Newtonian behaviour, whereas the modified LDH/Jojoba oil formulation shear thinned, which is a typical non-Newtonian behaviour. Viscosity as a function of temperature showed complex rheological behaviour for the long chain fatty acids C16 to C22. The viscosity increase is assumed to be due to a combination of three events, which include the formation and changes of LDH microstructures within the oil, the loss of excess fatty acids into the oil matrix, and the formation of fatty acid crystal networks. Shear action also induced some delamination of the clay platelets.