The principal aim of this research was to determine the optimum conditions of extraction and separation of niobium and tantalum with octanol as solvent, from Mozambican tantalite using ammonium bifluoride as an alternative to hydrofluoric acid. The extraction of niobium and tantalum from tantalite can be divided into three activities, viz., acid treatment of the ore to bring the niobium and tantalum values into solution, separation of niobium and tantalum by solvent extraction and preparation of pure niobium pentoxide and tantalum pentoxide by precipitation followed by calcination. An initial solution was prepared by melting a mixture of tantalite and ammonium bifluoride followed by leaching of the soluble component with water and separation of the solution by filtration. The solution filtered was successfully used after adjustment of the acidity for the extraction and separation of niobium and tantalum. After liquid-liquid extraction highly pure niobium pentoxide and tantalum pentoxide were obtained through precipitation with ammonium hydroxide and calcination. Comparative experiments were performed modifying the following variables: decomposition temperature; decomposition time of the digestion of niobium and tantalum; acid concentration of feed solution; solvent agent; and stripping agent. From the experimental results it was determined that the decomposition temperature, decomposition time of the digestion of niobium and tantalum, the acidity of the feed solution, the solvent agent, and stripping agent, all have an important effect on the extraction and separation of tantalum and niobium. The optimal conditions were determined to be: tantalite-to-ammonium bifluoride 1:30; decomposition temperature 250°C; decomposition time 3 hours; and a water leach period of 10 minutes. Under these conditions the leach recovery of niobium and tantalum was about 95.07% and 98.52%, respectively. For nearly complete extraction of tantalum and niobium with 2-octanol, two and three equilibrium stages, respectively, are required. The equilibrium data were obtained at an aqueous-to-organic ratio (A/O) of 1:1 using: 100% 2 octanol; 6 M H2SO4; 10 minutes contact time at room temperature for tantalum; and 100% 2 octanol, 9 M H2SO4, 10 minutes contact time at room temperature for niobium. Different stripping agents were used and water seems to give good result for both. For the nearly complete stripping process four equilibrium stages are required. From the results obtained an optimum stripping efficiency is achieved after 15 minutes for a 1:1 ratio. Niobium and tantalum were then neutralized using 28% ammonium hydroxide. The precipitate obtained was dried and placed in a muffle furnace for 4 hours at 900°C. After calcinations, pure tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide were obtained and characterized using XRD and SEM. Tantalum pentoxide and niobium pentoxide synthesized contain trace impurities such as iron and titanium which can be removed by incorporating an appropriate intermediate treatment.