The possibility of using Hsp70 and hsp70 gene polymorphisms as markers of acclimatization was investigated. Volunteers (22) were subjected to an acclimatization regimen and blood analysed for Hsp70 (Hsp72) and hsp70 polymorphisms before and after a heat tolerance test. Physiological parameters denoting acclimatization, or not, were correlated to levels of Hsp70 and combination of hsp70 genes. Only individuals that acclimatized had decreased basal Hsp70 levels and increased ability to induce Hsp70 together with a specific hsp70 genotype combination. We propose that Hsp70 levels (basal vs. induced) with the genotype combination have the potential to be used as markers of acclimatization.