Cancer is responsible for upward of 13% of human deaths. Contemporary chemotherapy of disseminated cancer is often thwarted by dose limiting systemic toxicity and by multi-drug resistance (MDR). Riminophenazines are a novel class of potential anticancer agents that possess a potent multi-mechanistic antineoplastic action. Apart from their broad action against intrinsic, non-classical resistance, Riminophenazines inhibit the action of Pgp and hypothetically all ABC transporters demonstrating their great utility against classical MDR. Considering that combination chemotherapy is the norm, the vision directing R&D efforts was that Riminophenazines could be used with benefit within many standard chemotherapeutic regimes. The strategic intent of this project was to attain improved therapeutic benefit for patients through gains in both pharmaco dynamic and pharmacokinetic specificity for cancer cells over what is currently available. Tactically, this was driven through the use of synergistic Fixed-Ratio Drug Combinations (FRDC) encapsulated within tumour-targeting Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS). Long-term aims of this R&D project were to: 1) Screen FRDC of clofazimine (B663) and the lead derivative (B4125) with etoposide, paclitaxel and vinblastine for synergistic drug interactions in vitro. 2) Design, assemble and characterize a novel nanoparticulate, synergistic, anticancer co-formulation. 3) Evaluate the in vivo safety and efficacy of the developed product/s in accordance with international regulatory guidelines. Using the median effect and combination index equations, impressive in vitro synergistic drug interactions (CI<1) were shown for various FRDC of the three standard chemotherapeutics tested (etoposide, paclitaxel and vinblastine) in combination with either B663 or B4125 against MDR neoplastic cell cultures. Considering in vitro results and with the view to advance quickly to clinical studies, the already approved clofazimine (B663) was elected as the combination partner for paclitaxel (PTX). Considering the potency and wide action of PTX, a novel coformulation (designed to circumvent drug resistance) has the potential to greatly impact upon virtually all cancer types, particularly if selectively delivered through innovative delivery systems and loco-regional administration. A passively tumour targeting, micellular NDDS system called Riminocelles™ that encapsulates a synergistic FRDC of B663 and PTX has been designed, assembled using thin film hydration methods and characterized in terms of drug loading, particle size, zeta potential, CMC and drug retention under sink conditions. An acute toxicity and a GLP repeat dose toxicity study confirmed Riminocelles to be well tolerated and safe at clinically relevant dosages whilst Taxol® (QDx7) produced statistically significant (P<0.05) weight loss within 14 days. The same study demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.05) tumour growth delays superior to that of Taxol at an equivalent PTX dosage of 10 mg/kg. Importantly, all components (amphiphiles and drugs) used in assembly of Riminocelles are already individually approved for medicinal use - this promotes accelerated development towards advanced clinical trials and successful registration. Although these results are very promising (outperforming Taxol), this system was however found in a pharmacokinetic study to suffer from in vivo thermodynamic instability due to the high concentration (abundance) of albumin present in plasma. For this reason, in vivo longevity within circulation, permitting passive tumour accumulation was not fully realized. A second NDDS called the RiminoPLUS™ imaging system was additionally developed. This lipopolymeric nanoemulsion system has successfully entrapped Lipiodol® Ultra fluid (an oil based contrast agent) within the hydrophobic core of a monodisperse particle population with a size of roughly 100 nm and a stability of one week. This formulation is therefore thought capable of CT imaging of tumour tissue and drug targeting after either intravenous or loco-regional injection. In vivo proof of the imaging concept is warranted. The results of this study serve to highlight the great potential of in vitro optimized synergistic FRDC against drug resistant cancers. Lipopolymeric micelles are an effective way to formulate multiple hydrophobic drugs for intravenous administration and present a means by which cancer can be readily targeted; provided that the delivery system possess the prerequisite in vivo stability and surface attributes. Further experiments exploring synergistic drug and biological combinations as well as “intelligent” NDDS actively guided through specific molecular recognition are called for.