### Abstract:

The maximum entropy principle, pioneered by Jaynes, provides a method for finding the least biased probability distribution for the description of a system or process, given as prior information the expectation values of a set (in general, a small number) of relevant quantities associated with the system. The maximum entropy method was originally advanced by Jaynes as the basis of an information theory inspired foundation for equilibrium statistical mechanics. It was soon realised that the method is very useful to tackle several problems in physics and other fields. In particular it constitutes a powerful tool for obtaining approximate and sometimes exact solutions to several important partial differential equations of theoretical physics. In Chapter 1 a brief review of Shannon’s information measure and Jaynes’ maximum entropy formalism is provided. As an illustration of the maximum entropy principle a brief explanation of how it can be used to derive the standard grand canonical formalism in statistical mechanics is given. The work leading up to this thesis has resulted in the following publications in peer-review research journals: • J.-H. Schönfeldt and A.R. Plastino, Maximum entropy approach to the collisional Vlasov equation: Exact solutions, Physica A, 369 (2006) 408-416, • J.-H. Schönfeldt, N. Jimenez, A.R. Plastino, A. Plastino and M. Casas, Maximum entropy principle and classical evolution equations with source terms, Physica A, 374 (2007) 573-584, • J.-H. Schönfeldt, G.B. Roston, A.R. Plastino and A. Plastino, Maximum entropy principle, evolution equations, and physics education, Rev. Mex. Fis. E, 52 (2)(2006) 151-159. Chapter 2 is based on Schönfeldt and Plastino (2006). Two different ways for obtaining exact maximum entropy solutions for a reduced collisional Vlasov equation endowed with a Fokker-Planck like collision term are investigated. Chapter 3 is based on Schönfeldt et al. (2007). Most applications of the maximum entropy principle to time dependent scenarios involved evolution equations exhibiting the form of a continuity equations and, consequently, preserving normalization in time. In Chapter 3 the maximum entropy principle is applied to evolution equations with source terms and, consequently, not preserving normalization. We explore in detail the structure and main properties of the dynamical equations connecting the time dependent relevant mean values , the associated Lagrange multipliers, the partition function, and the entropy of the maximum entropy scheme. In particular, we compare the H-theorems verified by the maximum entropy approximate solutions with the Htheorems verified by the exact solutions. Chapter 4 is based on Schönfeldt et al. (2006). In chapter 4 it is discussed how the maximum entropy principle can be incorporated into the teaching of aspects of theoretical physics related to, but not restricted to, statistical mechanics. We focus our attention on the study of maximum entropy solutions to evolution equations that exhibit the form of continuity equations (eg. Liouville equation, the diffusion equation the Fokker-Planck equation, etc.).