This study focused on examining distance education In-Service Teacher Education (INSET) programmes for the education of secondary school teachers in Uganda. The study traced the historical development of distance education, explored some of the theories underpinning it and related these to distance education in Uganda. In addition the study explored INSET programmes provided in Uganda through Distance Education since 1990. The study then focused on Makerere University’s Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) (External) Programme. This study explored issues related to the viability of distance education to meet the increasing demands of education in Uganda, factors impacting this growth, strengths and weaknesses of the teacher education programmes that have been run in the country since 1990 especially the B.Ed (External) programme and the possibility of integrating Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) in these programmes. To gather the relevant data, two instruments were used; questionnaires for students of B.Ed and Bachelor of Science (External), prospective students, tutors, managers and administrators of the B.Ed (External); an interview schedule for policy makers at the Ministry of Education and Sports, District Education offices, National Teachers’ Colleges and Primary Teachers’ Colleges. A total of 305 respondents participated in this study and they were drawn from different districts - Soroti, Tororo, Masindi, Mbarara, Kampala, Entebbe, Wakiso, and Mpigi - in the country. The data gathered was then analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics; and presented descriptively, in tables and graphs. The study established that distance education has a huge potential in Uganda but there are a number of factors that may be limiting the full realisation of this potential especially with regard to the running of science-oriented courses and with regard to meeting the practical demands of teacher education. However, with careful planning of the programmes, it is possible to effectively and efficiently provide any course. The study revealed a number of strengths and weaknesses in INSET programmes that have been run by distance education, and in the B.Ed (External) in particular. The specific areas included content, practical work; management and administration; study materials development and provision; student support; assessment and examination; and integration of ICTs in these programmes. To make these programmes much more effective and efficient, the study identified some strategies that could be used. Of particular note is the need to decentralise services and to put in place quality assurance mechanisms. Also, since ICTs occupy a central role in distance education programmes, the study explored the different ICTs that the B.Ed (External) stakeholders have access to, strategies of financing and making this technology more accessible, reasons for choosing a particular technology and the prerequisites that must be put in place for these to work. Furthermore, the study revealed that, in Uganda, access to the ICTs, is still a huge problem to students and staff of the B.Ed (External) programme. Personal ownership of the video, TV, computer and Internet is limited. Alternative ways especially collaborative ventures, and use of centres should therefore be utilised much more. Finally, a Framework for High Quality INSET Distance Education for Secondary School Teachers in Uganda was suggested. Makerere University can use this framework as the beginning of a restructuring and reorganisation process so as to ensure the B.Ed (External) achieves its objectives and produces high quality teachers.