Culicoides biting midges were intermittently collected between July 1988 and December 1992 in the Umlalazi Nature.
Reserve on the subtropical eastern coastal margin of South Africa. Altogether 34 species were collected in a diversity
of habitats that included a mangrove community, dune forest and mixed thornveld. Most Culicoides were
collected with the aid of light traps and whilst biting man. The pupae of ten species were collected from substrata
in an open salt marsh, as well as from fresh and stagnant groundwater situations. It was the first time that the pupae
of six of these ten species were collected. Of the species collected in light traps, the two most abundant species,
C. leucostictus Kieffer (49,1% of 16563 identified) and C. rhizophorensis Khamala & Kettle (22,3%) , were also
the two species found biting man. The larval habitat of C. leucostictus was widespread except in the more saline,
tidal areas, but that of C. rhizophorensis appeared to be restricted to the tidal salt-marsh area. Two of the species
collected, C. fulvithorax Austen and C. moreli Clastrier, are new records for South Africa.
The articles have been scanned in colour with a HP Scanjet 5590; 600dpi.
Adobe Acrobat XI Pro was used to OCR the text and also for the merging and conversion to the final presentation PDF-format.