Saponin C, a β-glucosidase-treated saponin isolated from ethanol-water extracts of a South African
collection of Tribulus terrestris, was shown by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to be
ruscogenin 1-O-α-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-6-O-acetylglucopyranoside.GC-MS analysis of the
hydrolysed ethanol-water (4:1) extracts of T. terrestris specimens from two of four sites, revealed high
levels of ruscogenin and potentially lithogenic diosgenin saponins. Specimens from two other sites contained
non-lithogenic saponins derived predominantly from tigogenin, neotigogenin, gitogenin and neogitogenin.
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