South Africa, like many other countries, is struggling with raising levels of obesity and the resultant health problems. Furthermore, as elsewhere in the world, this country is experiencing an ever-increasing need for additional fiscal revenue. These problems force governments all over the world to investigate possible solutions to these issues. The aim of this study was to determine whether fat tax can be used as a tool to decrease the rising rate of obesity in South Africa and thus improve the general health of South Africans and to create additional tax revenue. Available literature was compared and critically analyzed in terms of South African conditions in order to determine whether fat tax should be considered as an alternative tax in South Africa. Cultural beliefs that see obesity as a sign of good health and prosperity, as well as the extreme poverty experienced by a large proportion of the populace are factors that make it difficult to compare the findings of studies conducted in the rest of the world to those of South African research. These are aspects that should be considered for further research. Fat tax has potential as an alternative tax in order to bring about behavioural change and create revenue; however, this should be done with careful consideration as to whether the benefits outweigh the cost of its implementation for the South African taxpayer.