Lead toxicity : consequences and intervensions in an intensively managed (Gyps coprotheres) vulture colony

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dc.contributor.author Naidoo, Vinny
dc.contributor.author Wolter, Kerri
dc.contributor.author Espie, Ian W
dc.contributor.author Kotze, Antoinette
dc.date.accessioned 2013-01-29T06:21:36Z
dc.date.available 2013-01-29T06:21:36Z
dc.date.issued 2012
dc.description.abstract The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG) is involved in the ex situ conservation of Gyps coprotheres, the Cape Griffon vulture (CGV) and houses 24 birds in a 100-yr-old aviary. Following the death of one vulture with high liver lead concentrations, an investigation was launched to ascertain the source(s) and consequences of lead toxicity in this breeding colony. Whole blood from 24 CGV, paint from the enclosure, water, and soil sampled at various locations within the enclosure were evaluated for their lead concentration, and data were gathered from NZG’s medical records. The lead concentration in the paint, water, and enclosure soil was 5,100 lg/g, 0.5 lg/dl, and 72.48 6 21.83 lg/g, respectively. The whole-blood lead concentrations were 56.58 6 11 lg/dl. The breeding history of six pairs within the contaminated enclosure since 2002 showed 45 eggs laid, of which 44% were infertile and 24% successfully reared. The medical records revealed evidence of osteodystrophy despite adequate nutrition. As intervention measures, six birds were treated with Ca2þEDTA and the topsoil inside the enclosure was replaced. As a result, the lead concentration in the enclosure soil dropped to14.74 6 14.39 lg/g, and the whole-blood lead concentrations declined to 42.75 6 11.64 lg/dl. It was concluded that lead concentrations in whole blood in excess of 100 lg/dl leads to clinical signs of lead toxicity in the CGV. Lower levels appear to interfere mainly with reproductive potential. en
dc.description.librarian mn2013
dc.description.sponsorship This project was funded by in part by the WWF South Africa and the Ernest Oppenheimer and Son Trust. en
dc.description.uri http://www.bioone.org/toc/zamd/41/4 en
dc.identifier.citation Naidoo, V, Wolter, K, Espie, I & Kotze, A 2012, 'Lead toxicity : consequences and intervensions in an intensively managed (Gyps coprotheres) vulture colony', Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 43, no. 3 pp. 573–578. en
dc.identifier.issn 1042-7260 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1937-2825 (online)
dc.identifier.other 8621439700
dc.identifier.other A-1508-2008
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/20896
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher American Association of Zoo Veterinarians en
dc.rights Copyright 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians en
dc.subject Lead en
dc.subject Vultures en
dc.subject Paint en
dc.subject Gyps coprotheres en
dc.subject Calcium EDTA en
dc.subject Soil en
dc.subject.lcsh Poisoning in animals en
dc.title Lead toxicity : consequences and intervensions in an intensively managed (Gyps coprotheres) vulture colony en
dc.type Article en


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