Camallanus polypteri n. sp. is described from Polypterus bichir (type host), Synodontis schall and Clarias anguillaris in Lake Tingrela, Burkina Faso. It differs from the other African species of the subfamily Camallaninae parasitizing freshwater fishes, in that it lacks tridents. All species of the subfamily Camallaninae that lack tridents differ from the new species by at least one of the two following characters: a greater number of longitudinal ridges on the inner surface of the buccal capsule; and a muscular oesophagus shorter than the glandular oesophagus. In accordance with the classification of Petter (1979) , the new species is placed in the genus Camallanus Railliet & Henry, 1915, owing to the length of the posterior chamber of the buccal capsule, which is less than one third of the length of the anterior chamber.
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