Retrospective genetic characterisation of encephalomyocarditis viruses from African elephant and swine recovers two distinct lineages in South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Van Sandwyk, James Henry du Toit
dc.contributor.author Bennett, Nigel C., 1961-
dc.contributor.author Swanepoel, Robert
dc.contributor.author Bastos, Armanda D.S.
dc.date.accessioned 2012-11-01T10:14:54Z
dc.date.available 2012-11-01T10:14:54Z
dc.date.issued 2013-02
dc.description.abstract Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) outbreaks are rare in southern Africa. Only two have been reported to date from South Africa, both coinciding with rodent irruptions. The first outbreak manifested as acute myocarditis in pigs in 1979, whilst the second, occurring from 1993 to 1994, was linked to the deaths of 64 free-ranging adult African elephants (Loxodonta africana). The P1 genome region, inclusive of the flanking leader (L) and 2A genes, of three South African isolates, one from swine and two from elephants, was characterised by PCR amplification and sequencing of up to 11 overlapping fragments. In addition to the resulting 3329 nucleotide dataset, the 3D region that is widely used in molecular epidemiology studies, was characterised, and three datasets (P1, VP1/3 and 3D), complemented with available homologous EMCV data, were compiled for analyses. Phylogenetic inferences revealed the near-identical elephant outbreak strains to be most closely related to a mengovirus from rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Uganda, differing from the latter by between 11% (3D) and 15% (VP3/1). The South African pig isolate differed by 4% (3D) and 11% (VP3/1) from available European and Asian pig virus sequences. This study confirms the presence of two genetically distinct EMCV lineages recovered from sporadic outbreaks in wild and domestic hosts in southern Africa, and provides valuable baseline data for future outbreak eventualities in the sub-region. en
dc.description.librarian ab2012 en
dc.description.sponsorship The project was funded by a DST-NRF South African Research Chair of Behavioural Ecology and Physiology awarded to NCB. en
dc.description.uri http://www.elsevier.com/locate/vetmic en
dc.identifier.citation Van Sandwyk, JHdT, Bennett, NC, Swanepoel, R & Bastos, ADS 2013, 'Retrospective genetic characterisation of Encephalomyocarditis viruses from African elephant and swine recovers two distinct lineages in South Africa', Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 23-31.. en
dc.identifier.issn 0378-1135 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1873-2542 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.08.008
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/20337
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Elsevier en
dc.rights © 2012 Elsevier. All rights reserved. Notice : this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Veterinary Microbiology. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Veterinary Microbiology, September 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.08.008. en
dc.subject Encephalomyocarditis virus en
dc.subject South Africa en
dc.subject Sus scrofa en
dc.subject Loxodonta africana en
dc.subject Mengovirus en
dc.subject Epidemiology en
dc.subject Phylogeny en
dc.subject.lcsh African elephant en
dc.subject.lcsh Swine -- Diseases en
dc.subject.lcsh Encephalomyelitis en
dc.subject.lcsh Myocarditis en
dc.title Retrospective genetic characterisation of encephalomyocarditis viruses from African elephant and swine recovers two distinct lineages in South Africa en
dc.type Postprint Article en


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