Due to increased food borne outbreaks world-wide food safety management systems have been implemented to facilitate safe food production and processing. The implementation of food safety management systems has changed food safety assurance from a reactive to a proactive system. These systems also have the goal to facilitate international trade. This increases our reliance on food processors for safe food. However it is impossible to eliminate all risks. The food microbiology principles of these food safety management systems should be based on sound science, which is not always the case. Considering this, it brings about the need for advanced education of food scientists in food microbiology and safety. Essential is the understanding of research trends and findings in the occurrence and incidence, growth and survival of foodborne pathogens at different environments or in foods, toxin production and the pathogenicity of well-known and emerging pathogens, and also the effect of environmental stresses. Discussions on the microflora of food should include traditional foods, spoilage of new food systems, e.g. low-calorie foods, extended shelf life foods and fortified products. Since the identification of pathogenic or toxigenic strains employs sophisticated techniques, principles of immunology and molecular biology are essential.