This paper recognizes that other forms of trafficking such as, muti murder, child labour, criminal activities and adoption exist. However, for 79% of young women and girls trafficked in South Africa: the purpose of trafficking is for sexual exploitation. The author provides a literature review of human trafficking of young women and girls for sexual exploitation in South Africa. First, the purpose of writing this article is stated. Human trafficking, sexual exploitation, a girl and child trafficking are defined. In this section a distinction is made between involuntary and voluntary prostitution. Second, the theoretical framework of human trafficking is drawn from victimological theories namely: victim vulnerability, victim precipitation and victim criminal relationship. Third, the socio-cultural and socio-economic context within which human trafficking occurs is analyzed. Fourth, the South African responses to human trafficking are described. Although certain sections of existing legislations are utilized to prosecute human trafficking: challenges are encountered by legal practitioners during the hearing of these cases. In this section the author identifies the politics of legal reform that hinders the promulgation of the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Bill into legislation in South Africa. Finally, the author points out a more effective policy that could assist in the reduction of human trafficking of young women and girls for sexual exploitation.