Between August 1995 and June 1997 a survey to determine the distribution of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis was conducted in the Eastern Caprivi (Caprivi District, Namibia). A total of 1 481 adult cattle was examined at 33 sampling sites. Direct parasitological diagnostic tests were used and eluted blood spots were screened for the presence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies. Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomal infections were detected in 66 animals (4 .5 %) from 14 different locations. The parasitological and serological prevalence of trypanosomosis was highest in the Mamili area. Trypanosomosis was virtually absent in the Linyanti/Chobe area and the target barrier along the Kwando River had significantly reduced the prevalence of trypanosomosis in cattle grazing to the east of it. This suggests that anti-trypanosomaI antibody prevalence data can be used to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of tsetse control measures. Survey results suggest that in the Katima Mulilo area trypanosomal infections were being acquired when cattle grazed along the Zambezi River. Moreover survey results indicate that tsetse have not been able to establish themselves in the Katima Mulilo area. The parasitological prevalence in a herd and the respective prevalence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies was significantly correlated to the percentage of anaemic animals in that herd. Furthermore the parasitological prevalence in a herd was positively correlated with the prevalence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies of that herd. It is concluded that the prevalence of anti-trypanosomaI antibodies in a herd can be used as an additional indicator of the extent of infection in that particular herd.
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