Clinical Borrelia theileri infection was reported for the first time in cattle from Botswana concurrent
with Babesia bovis and Theileria mutans infections. Two animals, an ox and a cow of the Tswana
breed demonstrated clinical signs of fever, haemoglobinuria, inappetance, diarrhoea, pallor of mucous
membranes, enlarged superficial lymph nodes and rough hair coats. Examination of the blood
smears from the affected animals revealed numerous B. theileri, and very few B. bovis and T mutans
organisms. Oxytetracycline was administered parenterally to all the animals in the herd. The ox, being
extremely weak and recumbent for the previous 4-5 days, succumbed to death the day after the
examination. The clearance of spirochaetes from the blood circulation and recovery of the cow three
days after treatment with oxytetracycline suggest an involvement of B. theileri in producing clinical
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