Adansonia digitata L (Baobab) is widely distributed throughout Sub-Saharan Africa stretching
from Senegal to Sudan, and from Ethiopia to Natal. Information of phenotypic and genetic
variation is a prerequisite for the domestication and improvement of baobab fruits from the wild.
A study was done to determine within and between provenance variability in fruit and seed
characteristics of five populations selected from four silvicultural zones and assess whether
morphometric traits could delineate populations from different zones into land races. Fruits were
characterized from 55 trees representing a wide geographical range. Six fruit traits and three
individual seed traits were assessed. Results showed highly significant differences (P≤0.001) in
fruit, pulp, and seed weight, fruit length and width, number of seed, individual seed weight, seed
length and width within and between populations. Mean fruit weight ranged from 125.8 ± 3.25 g
to 162.9 ± 3.25 g, seed weight ranged from 38.6 ± 2.5 g to 66 ± 2.01g and pulp weight ranged
from 28.7 ± 1.33 g to 41.4 ± 1.33 g. Single seed weight showed pronounced evidence of
divergence of populations into ecotypes. The rich diversity found between and within
populations is important for domestication purposes and tree improvement through selection and
breeding. All populations could be used for seed source but distribution should be consciously
done recognizing existence of races.