An analysis of the research on the compositional development of Isaiah 56–66 indicates that the
redefinition of Judean identity played a major role in the formation of these chapters. Scholars
very often refer to the penitential prayer in Isaiah 63:7–64:11 to indicate this redefinition
of identity. A study of the background of these chapters shows that Hanson’s theory of a
developing apocalypticism is usually upheld, whilst his identification of a Zadokite opposition
is either rejected or replaced by an acknowledgement that it is not possible to identify these
opponents. The suggestion of this article is that the term ‘qualified inclusivism’ can be used as
the mark of those responsible for this section of the book of Isaiah.