ENSO and implications on rainfall characteristics with reference to maize production in the Free State Province of South Africa

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dc.contributor.author Moeletsi, Mokhelo Edmond
dc.contributor.author Walker, Sue
dc.contributor.author Landman, W.A. (Willem Adolf), 1964-
dc.date.accessioned 2012-07-10T07:48:41Z
dc.date.available 2012-07-10T07:48:41Z
dc.date.issued 2011
dc.description.abstract El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) plays an important role in the interannual variability of rainfall in most parts of southern Africa. The effects of ENSO on the rainy season characteristics and possible impacts on rainfed maize production were investigated. The rainy season characteristics of concern are the onset of rains, cessation of rains, duration of rainy season and seasonal rainfall total. 309 climate stations over the Free State Province with rainfall data from 1950 to 2008 were analysed. The rainy season indices were further subdivided into El Niño and La Niña years. The differences in averages of the rainy season indices were determined for the negative phase of ENSO versus the overall averages and for the positive phase of ENSO versus the overall averages. The results of the onset of rains show no clear pattern in the Free State with some areas experiencing late onset and others early onset in both El Niño and La Niña years. However, the cessation of rains occurs early during the El Niño and late in La Niña years over most parts of the province. Consequently, the duration of the rainy season is shorter than normal in El Niño years and longer than normal in La Niña years. Seasonal rainfall is also lower than normal in El Niño years while in La Niña years more cumulative rainfall in mostly observed. As a result, maize production is favoured in La Niña years and reduction in production is normally observed during El Niño years. en
dc.description.librarian nf2012 en
dc.description.sponsorship Agricultural Research Council-Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (Project no.GW57/007) en_US
dc.description.uri http://www.elsevier.com/locate/pce en_US
dc.identifier.citation Mokhele Edmond Moeletsi, Sue Walker & Willem Adolf Landman, ENSO and implications on rainfall characteristics with reference to maize production in the Free State Province of South Africa, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part A / B / C, vol. 36, no.14-15, pp. 715-726 (2011), doi:10.1016/j.pce.2011.07.043. en
dc.identifier.issn 1474-7065 (print)
dc.identifier.issn 1873-5193 (online)
dc.identifier.other 10.1016/j.pce.2011.07.043
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/2263/19377
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Elsevier en_US
dc.rights © 2011 Elsevier. All rights reserved. en_US
dc.subject Cessation of rain en
dc.subject Duration of rainy season en
dc.subject Maize production en
dc.subject Onset of rain en
dc.subject Seasonal rainfall en
dc.subject El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) en
dc.subject.lcsh Rain and rainfall -- South Africa -- Free State en
dc.title ENSO and implications on rainfall characteristics with reference to maize production in the Free State Province of South Africa en
dc.type Postprint Article en


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