The fern genus Cyrtomium (Dryopteridaceae) in Africa and Madagascar is reviewed. Until now, a single Cyrtomium
species ascribed to either C. caryotideum or C. micropterum (the latter often considered to be a variety of the
former) was recognized for the region. This study shows that three Cyrtomium species occur in the region. One,
C. falcatum, is not native to the African or Madagascan region, but has become naturalized in various parts of
South Africa and Réunion. Two, formerly considered as a single taxon and confused with C. caryotideum and Indian
forms thereof, are described as new – C. luctuosum from Madagascar, East, West and South Africa and
C. pseudocaryotideum from South Africa.