Most African states emerged from shadows and made a transition from mono-party, one-person and military rule towards political pluralism and multi-party democratic governance in 1990s. One of the key ingredients of this transformation is the holding of regular elections and electoral systems that undergird the electoral process itself.
However still, most African states practice what is referred to as shallow democracy as opposed to deeper democracy that requires full participation of citizens and accountability. Shallow democracy is the democracy that has not made any positive impacts to the ordinary people despite the radical changes to the constitution and expansion of part activity.
Prepared under the supervision of Mr Paulo Comoane at the Faculty of Law, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique
Thesis (LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa)) -- University of Pretoria, 2011.