“For too long the world has stood by in the face of atrocities. The Responsibility to Protect is a
commitment to act.” After the 2005 World Summit, the international community endorsed a new
international norm, the Responsibility to Protect. This new international norm stipulates that the primary
responsibility to protect the population of a country lies with the state itself. When a state is either
unable or unwilling to protect peoples, the responsibility shifts to the international community. The
obligation must be exercised preventively and the tools of action include diplomatic, legal and other
peaceful measures; coercive measures such as sanctions; and, as a last resort, military force.
Thesis (LLM (Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa)) -- University of Pretoria, 2011.