The launch of artificial satellites (as early as in 1957), specifically the launch of the first laser
tracked satellite, Beacon-B, in 1964, has provided data sets which have allowed researchers
to probe the long to medium components of the gravitational field of the Earth. In particular,
observational data recorded at satellite laser ranging tracking stations have since been used
to develop models that quantify the global long-wavelength and medium-wavelength gravity
field of the Earth. Currently, literature reviewing gravity field models with geophysical
applications is scarce and not up to date. The most recent review paper was published more
than a decade ago. In the interim, there has been an unprecedented increase in gravity field
modelling, which can be attributed to the deployment of new and dedicated satellite missions.
As a result, a number of existing geopotential models have been improved and new models
have been developed. Each of these models differs in accuracy and spatial-temporal scale. This
review extends the earlier review of gravity field models, by incorporating up-to-date research
efforts in geopotential modelling with geophysical applications in oceanography, hydrology,
geodesy and solid Earth science.