The terrapins Pelomedusa subrufa and Pelusios sinuatus taken from a water reservoir in the Northern Province, South Africa, were examined for pentastome infections. Two immature specimens, a patent female and a mature male, were obtained from the lungs of four hosts, each of which harboured a single specimen. Based on the morphology of the specimens the new monospecific genus, Pelonia africana n. g., n. sp., is described. It is characterized by smooth, dorsally convex hooks with sharply bent blades. The oral cadre is more or less U-shaped. Delicate chitinous fibres, which can be difficult to see, connect the lateral prongs anteriorly. In this, as well as the morphology of the copulatory spicules, it is most like Sebekia wedli. The latter, however, possesses spinous hooks, which are absent in P. africana. The hooks are slightly and the copulatory spicules markedly larger in P. africana than in S. wedli. The lack of a double-hooked collar at the terminal end of the cowry-shell shaped base of each copulatory spicule and the absence of a peg-like extension of the oral cadre into the oesophagus, distinguishes P. africana from members of the genus Alofia. The oral cadre of the South American species Diesingia megastoma, from aquatic chelonians, is more than twice the size than that of Pelonia and there is a distinct difference in shape. The hooks of the genus Diesingia are flat-topped and both the anterior as well as the posterior fulcra carry cowl-like extensions. The number of annuli, 55-60 in D. megastoma and approximately 30 in P. africana, further separates the two genera. The most striking feature of Diesingia which sets it apart from Pelonia and the other genera of the family Sebekidae is the configuration of its copulatory spicules. Pelonia and Diesingia share morphological features with all the other sebekiids but it is the unique combination of diagnostic characters that separates the two genera from those, as well as from each other.
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