Clofazimine, a lipophilic riminophenazine antibiotic, possesses both antimycobacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its efficacy has been demonstrated only in the treatment of leprosy, not in human
tuberculosis, despite the fact that this agent is impressively active in vitro against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recent insights into novel targets and mechanisms of antimicrobial and antiinflammatory activity coupled with the acquisition of innovative drug delivery technologies have, however, rekindled interest in clofazimine as a potential therapy for multidrug- and extensively multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in particular, as well as several autoimmune diseases. The primary objective of this review is to critically evaluate these recent developments and to assess their potential impact on improving the therapeutic efficacy and versatility of clofazimine.