A cross sectional survey to determine the distribution and prevalence of trypanosomosis was conducted in Kindo Koisha district, in the Wollaita zone in southern Ethiopia. A total of 1008 adult cattle was examined at eight different localities. Dark field examination of the buffy coat, as well as stained thin blood film examination and packed cell volume (PCV) evaluation were the diagnostic techniques used. The overall prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was 15%. Among the positive animals, 108 (71.1%), 43 (28.4%) and 1 (0.6%) were due to Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and mixed infection ( T. vivax and T. congolense), respectively. The infection rate of T. vivax and T. congolense varied significantly ( P<0.01). The mean PCV of the positive and negative animals ranged between18.3 – 32.1% and 26.8 – 33.4%, respectively. The mean PCV of negative animals (28%) was significantly higher than the mean PCV of positive animals (22.3%) (P<0.001). There was an inverse association of PCV with the prevalence of trypanosomosis (P>0.05). The herd average PCV values of each site decreased with increasing proportion of the positive herds of that particular site. Of the diagnostic tests employed, the microhaematocrit buffy coat technique is relatively sensitive and it has an added advantage of indicating the general condition of the animal by haematocrit measurement. In view of the risk of trypanosomosis, a control intervention through the strategic application of appropriate trypanocidal drugs is recommended. A tsetse fly control scheme to reduce host-tsetse fly contact is equally as important as chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis against trypanosomosis.
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