Horticulture can be defined as the art of science of the cultivation of management of an orchard of garden of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants. Only 332 300 ha of South African soil is used for horticultural crops, which is only 2,3 % of the land planted with permanent crops. The gross value of these products, of which citrus and deciduous fruit are the most important (R125 million each) is R588 426 000 (1975). Agricultural produce as a whole earned R1 090 million in foreigh exchange, but it is a matter of concern that R36 million worth of tea, R20,4 million worth of rice and R14,6 million worth of coffee were imported during 1975 (total agricultural imports for this year amounted to R106,7 million) The history of the Horticulture Department of the University of Pretoria, research projects (past, present and future) as well as an experiment with 45 different rootstocks for the nucellar Palmer navel are discussed. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that Heen Naran mandarin, Snyman- and Eloff sweet orange, Grenrind mandarin and Orlando tangelo were the best rootstocks and warranted further research. As regards student training, the aim is to promote and develop the three main branches of Horticulture, viz Fruit, Vegetables and Floriculture, to an even level so that major-subject students may specialize in any of these branches at post-graduate level. The future of Horticulture is approached cautiously, but also optimistically, regard being given to the predicted shortages of natural resources, uncontrolled population growth and pollution by mankind. The general conclusion is reached that crops like nuts should receive more attention and might provide a solution to the problem of the ever increasing population of Africa.