This article first explores individual memory as understood from the time of the ancient
Greeks and Romans to modern-day neurology and psychology. The perspective is correlated
with collective memory theory in the works of Halbwachs, Connerton, Gillis, Fentress and
Wickham, Olick, Schwartz, Jan and Alida Assmann and Kirk and Thatcher. The relevance of
‘orality’ is highlighted in Kelber’s works, as well as in oral poetry performance by illiterate
Yugoslavian bards, as discussed in studies by Parry, Lord and Havelock. Kelber’s challenge of
Bultmann’s theory of oral tradition in the gospels is also covered. The article concludes with
observations and reflections, opting for a position of moderate−to−strong constructionism.