Ophiostoma species such as O. quercus are the most frequent causal agents of sapstain of freshly felled hardwood timber and pulpwood. Many species are regarded as economically important agents of wood degradation. The aim of this study was to identify a collection of Ophiostoma isolates, resembling O. quercus, found on stained Eucalyptus pulpwood chips in China. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions, including the 5.8S region, of the ribosomal DNA, and parts of the β-tubulin and elongation factor-1α genes, revealed that the isolates were not O. quercus. Surprisingly, they represented O. tsotsi, a wound-infesting fungus recently described from hardwoods in Africa. In addition, sequence data from an isolate from agarwood in Vietnam, identified in a previous study as belonging to an unknown Pesotum species, were also shown to represent O. tsotsi. A high level of genetic variability was observed among isolates of both O. quercus and O. tsotsi. This was unexpected and suggests that both species have been present in Asia for a significant amount of time.